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Glossary

Abraham Lincoln Brigade
A general term for the 2,800 Americans who enlisted in the International Brigades to defend the Spanish Republic against the military insurrection led by General Francisco Franco. More than 100
nurses and doctors served in hospitals and clinics to assist soldiers and civilians alike.

CNT (Confederacion Nacional de Trabajo)
Anarchist-Syndicalist trade union founded in 1911. The most militant and revolutionary union. Sought to organise all workers into one big union. Based itself on the ideas of anarchism and revolutionary syndicalism.

Embargo
A governmental order prohibiting or banning the movement of trade (exports or imports) between countries. In the case of Spain, the U.S. government’s embargo prohibited the sales of armaments to both sides fighting in the Spanish Civil War.

Fascism
A governmental system which is led by a dictator who exercises complete power, forcibly suppressing opposition and criticism, regimenting all industry, commerce, and other civilian activities, and emphasizing an
aggressive nationalism. Fascism is often combined with extreme racism toward minorities within the country or outsiders. Nazi Germany is an example of a fascist government.

FAI (Federacion Anarquista Iberica)
Loose federation of anarchist groups in Spain and Portugal, formed in 1927. Primary purpose was to combat reformist tendencies in the CNT and maintain it's anarchist profile. Also acted as the 'armed wing' of the CNT at the time employers were hiring pistoleros to murder leading CNT members. In so far as the FAI had a theory about the role of a revolutionary organisation it was a belief that a minority could, by insurrection, light a spark that would inflame the masses for revolution. They organised risings in January 1932, January 1933 and December 1933 all of which were unsuccessful.

FIJL (Federaction Iberica de Juventudes Libertarias)
Anarchist youth organization

Friends of Durruti
Left opposition group within the CNT, FAI and FIJL founded in early 1937. Was against CNT entry into government and argued for complete social revolution as the only way to defeat Franco. Named after the famous anarchist militia leader killed in November 1936.

Adolph Hitler (1889-1945)
Elected Chancellor of Germany in 1933, Hitler established a dictatorship under the Nazi Party. During the Spanish Civil War, Germany illegally sent military aid and troops to support the Franco-led rebellion.

Mujeres Libres
Anarchist women's organization.

Benito Mussolini (1883-1945)
Leader of the fascist movement in Italy, and of the Italian government after 1922, Mussolini allied with Hitler and supported the Franco-led rebellion with military assistance and troops. neutrality: the policy or status of a nation which does not participate in a war between other nations. The United States chose to maintain a policy of neutrality in response to the Spanish Civil War.

Neutrality Acts
A series of laws passed by Congress in 1935, 1937, and 1939 (see Timeline), designed to preserve U.S. neutrality in foreign wars by avoiding the issues that had drawn the nation into World War I.

PCE (Partido Communista de Espana)
Pro- Russian Communist Party founded in 1921.

POUM (Partido Obrero de Unificacion Marxista)
Anti-Stalinist Communist party formed in 1935 with the joining together of a Trotskyist group and dissidents from the PCE. Contained many revolutionaries but was essentially a party that vacillated between reformism and revolution. The writer George Orwell fought in their militia.

PSOE (Partido Socialista Obrero Espanol)
Known as the 'Socialist Party'. A democratic party formed in 1879.

PUSC (Partilo Socialista Unificado de Cataluna)
The United Catalan Socialist Party. Formed in 1936 from a merger of Socialist and Communist groups. Affiliated to the Comintern and effectively the PCE in Catalonia.

Quarantine
A strict isolation imposed upon a nation to prevent that nation from receiving anything in the way of products or armaments from other nations.

Republican Party
Party of the radical middle class founded in 1934.

Republican Union
A split from the government party of 1933-35.

Spanish Republic
After the abdication of King Alphonso XIII in 1931, Spain established its second Republican form of government. Five years later, the Spanish military joined the aristocracy, the Church, and wealthy landowners in a rebellion against this elected form of government.

UGT (Union General de Trabajadores)
Trade union connected with the PSOE.